Chapters 8 & 9 Study Guide

Chapter 8 Vocabulary

dependency- a place that is governed by or closely connected to another country that it is not officially part of

West Indies- the Caribbean islands

mulatto- a person of mixed European and African ancestry

ladino- a person of mixed European and Native American ancestry

dictator- a person who has complete control over a country's government

single-product economy- an economy that depends on just one product for the majority of its jobs and income

diversify- to conduct business activities in a variety of industries

Fidel Castro- a lawyer who was born in 1926 to a wealthy family who organized a revolution to overtake Cuba's dictator, Batista, in 1959. After the revolution he became commander-in-chief of Cuba's army and took full control of Cuba's government. He befriended the Soviet Union and adopted the communism for Cuba and eventually declared Cuba a communist country. Castro became a dictator of Cuba.

communism- an economic and political system in which property is owned collectively and labor is organized in a way that is supposed to benefit all people

sugar cane- the plant from which sugar is made

Jose Marti- led Cubans to continue to fight for the nation's independence against Spain

Chapter 9 Vocabulary

Simon Bolivar- a general who led a series of wars for independence and whose leadership freed the northern parts of South America

Pan-American- meaning "all of the Americas" North, South, and Central

Carnival- a Brazilian holiday that occurs during the four days before Lent.

free-trade zone- people and goods that move across the border without being taxed

economic indicator- statistics that show how a country's economy is doing

inflation- general increase of the price of goods or services

urbanization- people who have moved from the countryside to cities

oasis- a fertile region in a desert that formed around a river or spring

guerrilla warfare- nontraditional military tactics characterized by small groups using surprise attacks

Quechua- people who live in the Andes highlands and speak the Inca language Quechua

Chapter 8 Short Answer:
Section 1 Establishing Independence (pages 203-207)
Why did the United States want to build the Panama Canal?
The U.S wanted to build the Panama Canal because the canal provides a water route between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, eliminating a long trip around South America. People who wanted to travel from one side of North or South America to the other side had to either make the long, dangerous trip by land or sail all the way around South America and building the canal connected the two oceans and made it faster and easier to travel.
Section 2 Building Economies and Cultures (pages 208-213)
What risk did Caribbean islanders face by having single-product economies?
The risk the Caribbean islanders faced by having a single-product economies is that if something happened to the single product, or the market price drops, the country's economy would be ruined.
What two crops did Central American economies depend on before the countries diversified their economies? The two crops that Central American economies depended on before the countries were diversified were sugar, then on bananas and coffee.
Section 3 Cuba Today (pages 215-220)
Why did millions of people flee from Cuba to the United States after Castro took over?
Millions of people began to flee from Cuba to the U.S. after Castro took over because Castro would imprison people who spoke out against him so people who opposed him began to flee.
How did Cuba’s relationship with the Soviet Union affect Cuba?
Castro ruled as a dictator, adopted Communist policies, redistributed land, and suppressed dissent.
Chapter 9 Short Answer:
Section 1 Establishing Independence (pages 231-235)
1. What caused the death of so many Native Americans after the arrival of the Europeans in South America?
Diseases and overwork in mines and plantations caused the death of so many Native Americans after the arrival of the Europeans in South America.
2. How did many South American nations end up with unlimited governments after independence? Many South American nations ended up with unlimited governments after independence because wealthy South Americans and former Spanish officials wanted to keep their power, property, and interests by giving control of the government to the military.

Study **states and capitals** that are located in the Northeast part of our country.


Do you think that Fidel Castro was a good leader for Cuba?
Be sure to include the following points in your answer (3 points each):

· How Castro gained power in Cuba

· What Castro promised he would do - did he keep his promise?

· Cuba’s history since 1959

· Cuba’s literacy rate - 99.8% per 2002 Census, 2nd in the world

· Cuba’s health plan

ABC News - Fidel Castro Tells Cuba He will Step Down

BBC News - Castro Steps Down as Cuban Leader

New York Times - Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President

* Check out the Data File on pages 146-147 of your text book or the CIA World Fact Book online for more information