Chapter 9 Study Guide


Simon Bolivar- a general that led a series of wars for independence. His leadership freed the northern parts of South America.
Pan-American- relating to all of the Americas. (South America, Central, and North)
Carnival- a Brazilian holiday that occurs during the four days before Lent.
free-trade zone- an area in which goods can move across borders without being taxed.
economic indicator-measures that show how a country's economy is doing.
inflation-continuing to increase in the price of goods and services, or a continuing decrease in the capability of money to buy goods and services.
urbanization- the movement of people from the countryside to cities.
oasis- a region in a desert that is fertile because it is near a river or spring.
guerrilla warfare- nontraditional military tactics characterized by small groups using surprise attacks.
Quechua- people who live in the Andes highlands and speak this Inca language.

Section 1 Establishing Independence (pages 231-235)
1. What caused the death of so many Native Americans after the arrival of Europeans in South America?
Millions died of disease or overwork.
2. How did many South American nations end up with unlimited governments after independence?
The wealthy officials and former Spanish officials wanted to keep their property and power. They didn't want the citizens to have any say in government.

Section 2 Building Economies and Cultures (pages 238-242)
3. List three of South America's major natural resources.

Fertile land, fishing grounds, minerals.

4. Why have so many people moved to South America's cities in the past 50 years?

Growth of manufacturing created more jobs in the city, the promise of jobs, schools and health services drew them to cities.


Why did people in South America fight for their independence in the early 1800's?

Be sure to include the following points in your answer (3 points each):

- who controlled South America in the early 1800's
Spain and Portugal

- population groups in South America
Native Americans, Europeans, Africans; mestizos and mulattos

- international trade (pg. 232)
Gold, silver, and sugar were traded during the early 1800s.