Chapter 16 & 20 Study Guide

1. Arab-Israeli Wars - a series of wars between 1948 and 1973 that were fought between Israel and the Arab countries of Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon

2. Palestine - Arab region that was also the land the Jews have lived in 2,000 years

3. Kurd - mountain people who live in Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and Turkey

4. Arabs - People from the Middle East

5. Persians - People from what is now Iran

6. Persian Gulf War - a war in 1991 between the United States and Iraq

7. OPEC - the Orginization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which decides the price and amount of oil produced each year in Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Venezuela

8. primary product - the raw material used to manufacture other products

9. secondary product - goods manufactured from raw material

10. hajj - a pilgrimage to Mecca that most Muslims try to make at least once in a lifetime

11. subcontinent - a large landmass that is part of a continent but that has its own geographic identity

12. Aryans - an ethnic group that migrated from southern Russia through central Asia and settled in India

13. Hinduism - a religion developed in ancient India

14. caste - an inherited social class that separates people from other classes by birth, occupation, or wealth

15. Buddhism - a religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama in India in the 500s B.C.

What was the United Nations solution to the conflicting claims of Arabs and Zionists (Jews) to Palestine?
They separated Palestine into two states

Why is oil the most important resource in the region?
It is the world’s primary energy source and the Middle East has more than half of the world’s energy supply, and it is their main source of income.

What are the main beliefs and characteristics of Hinduism?
The caste system, reincarnation and karma and belief in many gods

How is Buddhism similar to and different from Hinduism?
Simliar – They both believe in the life cycle of karma and reincarnation
Different – Many Hinduism still follow the caste system; Buddhists do not believe in the caste system. The Buddha taught that the goal of life is to be free from desires and pain and reach a state of happiness and peace by following the Middle Way or Eightfold Path.

Essay Question (20 points) - Remember to restate the question in your answer!

Discuss how oil has affected the world and Southwest Asia/North Africa since World War II.

Include each of the following points in your answer:

- the development of OPEC (and describe what OPEC is)

- the 1973 oil embargo (what happened and why)

- tensions between Iran and Iraq

- U.S. and world dependency on oil today