Ch. 12 Study Guide

Part A – Define the following terms

1. Nationalism- a strong pride in one’s nation or ethnic group

2. Colonialism- a system by which a country maintains colonies outside its border

3.World War I- a war from 1914 to 1918 between the Allies (Russia, France, United Kingdom, Italy, and the United States) and the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Turkey, and Bulgaria)

4. dual monarchy- a form of government in which one ruler governs two nations

5.War World II- a war fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) and the Allies (United Kingdom, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States)

6. NATO- North American Treaty Organization, a defense alliance signed in 1949 through which the countries of Western Europe, Canada, and the United States agreed to defend one another if attacked

7. Adolf Hitler- German dictator and leader of the Nazi Party, started World War II and the holocaust

8. Warsaw Pact- a treaty signed in 1955 that established an alliance among the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania

9. Holocaust- the organized killing of European Jews and others by the Nazis during World War II

10. Cold War- after World War II, a period of political non-cooperation between the members of NATO and the Warsaw Pact nations, during which these countries refused to trade or cooperate with each other

11. Joseph Stalin- dictator and leader of the Soviet Union during World War II; ruthless Communist leader sent many of his citizens to prisons

12. Austria-Hungary- in the 1900s, a dual monarchy in which the Hapsburg emperor ruled both Austria and Hungary; included parts of many present-day countries, including Romania, the Czech Republic, and portions of Poland

13. Fascism- political philosophy that promotes having a strong, central government controlled by the military and led by a powerful dictator, Hitler was a Fascist

Part B – Review Questions

Section 1 – European Empires (pages 329-332)

14. What was the largest empire in Eastern Europe in 1900?
The largest empire in Eastern Europe in the 1900s was Austria-Hungary.
Section 2 – Europe at War (pages 333-338)

15. Why did European countries join alliances?
European rulers wanted other leaders to think twice before declaring war on their countries. To help defend themselves, several countries joined alliances.

16. What did the Treaty of Versailles require Germany to do?
The Treaty of Versailles demanded that Germany be punished by being forced to pay for the damage done to the Allied countries. It was also made to give up valuable territory.

17. What country did Germany invade to begin World War II?
In 1939, Germany's government, Hitler, invaded Poland.

Section 3 – The Soviet Union ( pages 342-347)

19. Why did most Eastern European voters have only one political party to choose from?
Most Eastern Europeans did have a chance to vote, but they had only one political party to choose from: the Communist Party. All other parties were outlawed which meant that there was only one candidate to choose from for each government position.

20. How did the Iron Curtain affect the lives of Eastern Europeans?
People of the East were restricted from traveling outside of their countries. People could not communicate to people outside of the country, they can also not travel.

21. Why were both sides in the Cold War hesitant to start a war?
Both sides in the Cold War were hesitant to start a war that would involve the use of newly developed nuclear weapons, which could cause destruction on a global scale.

Part C – Essay

Part 4 – Essay (20 points)

Answer the following question on a piece of looseleaf paper.

Remember to:

_ skip lines (1 point)

_ restate the question in your answer or topic sentence (1 point)

_ end your essay with a conclusion (1 point)

Which countries were the major European powers on each side in World War I, and how there the alliances different in World War II?
Include each of the following in your answer (details that support your topic sentence):
_ how World War I began (5 points)

_ members of the Central Powers and the Allies in World War I (4 points)

_ who won World War I (2 points)

_ members of the Axis Powers and the Allies in World War II (4 points)

_ who won World War II (2 points)