Chapter 7 Study Guide

Vocabulary:

chocolate (Dateline page 173) - A thick, smooth, and bitter drink made from cacao seeds and enjoyed by the Aztec and the Maya.
encomienda - a system that the rulers of Spain established in Mexico, under which Spanish men received a Native American village to oversee and gain tribute from
Father Miguel Hidalgo - known as The Father of Mexican Independence, he was a criollo who became a priest and had great sympathy for the Native Americans and mestizos.

peninsular - people who were born in Spain but who lived in Mexico after the Spanish took control
criollo - people who were born in Mexico but whose parents were born in Spain
mestizo - a person who is of mixed European and Native American ancestry.
Native Americans - "New Spain's" largest group who made up the bottom layer of society.

Benito Juarez - a man who rose from poverty to become president of Mexico and a hero to his people
hacienda - a big farm or ranch, often as large as 40,000 or 50,000 acres
ejido - a community farm owned by all the villagers together
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) - the most powerful political party in Mexico, from the 1920's to the 2000's, which won every presidential election during that time.
National Action Party (PAN) - the party of Vincente Fox, who was the first president in more than 70 years who did not belong to the PRI.

maquilidora- in Mexico, a factory that imports duty-free parts from the United States to make products that it then exports back across the border.
NAFTA- (North American Free Trade Agreement) aims to reduce taxes on items traded among Mexico, Untited States, and Canada.
PEMEX- Mexican Petroleum, a government agency that runs the oil industry in Mexico
tourism- an industry that is in the business of helping people travel on vacations
fiesta- a holiday celebrated with events such as parades, games, and feasts.

Short answer:

- What was unique about Mexico's presidential election in 2000? (pages 179-184)
The Mexican presidential election of 2000 was unique because it was the first time in 71 years that a different party was elected. The PRI was defeated by the PAN who was represented by Vincente Fox.

- What is the role of oil in Mexico's economy? (pages 185-189)
The role of oil in Mexico's econmy is that the US is the largest buyer of Mexican oil and PEMEX, a govenment run agency, is Mexico's most important company.

Essay: (10 points on test. Practice essay needs to be written out and in binder for test day.)

How has Mexico's history been influenced by being so close to the United States?


Be sure to discuss the following in your answer (details that support your topic sentence):

- wars between the two countries - name two and discuss (p. 176-178)

- trade between the two countries - NAFTA and oil (p. 188)

For your essay, remember to:

_ skip lines

_ restate the question in your answer (topic sentence)

_end your essay with a conclusion

Study **states and capitals** that are located in the Northeast part of our country.